Carbohydrates are one of the major organic compounds. They are the primary source of energy in the human body. They include sugars and starches. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen, in a ratio of 1:2:1. The simplest carbs are called monosaccharides or simple sugars. Carbohydrates are usually found in foods such as pasta, bread and potatoes. Examples of carbohydrates include glucose, fructose and galactose. Complex carbohydrates are either called disaccharides or polysaccharides.
A disaccharide is a sugar composed of two monosaccharides combined. A polysaccharide is a complex carbohydrate. They are polymers made up of many monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds. Starch is a polysaccharide and is used for food storage. The process that joins saccharides is called dehydration synthesis. It involves the removal of water. Hydrolysis is the addition of water to break apart saccharides that have been combined.


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